To catch on in a crowded marketplace of ideas, say Chip and Dan Heath, authors of Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die, a concept must be communicated in a way that is simple,unexpected, and credible.

Last year, voters were confronted by a 200-page voter guide, 17 statewide ballot measures and a swarm of local questions.  The political marketplace could not have been more crowded.

Some campaigns, however, broke through the election-year clutter using simple and unexpected economic analyses, prepared by credible authors.

Forward Observer reviewed third-party studies released last year by winning campaigns or related to major public policy issues. Here are some of the most noteworthy – and “stickiest” – numbers of 2016:

Here is one more number that is noteworthy: $500 million.

That represents the total amount raised by statewide ballot committees in the 2016 election cycle through November 8, according to The Los Angeles Times.

You can read our full report, along with Forward Observer’s other research briefs, here.